The following map represents the Violence and Vulnerabilities theme area for the Gender + Migration Hub project.  Click on any grey area below to rotate the globe. Or click on any tan region to access information about gender-responsive migration practices in that country.

GCM Objectives from the United Nations for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration

  1. Collect and utilize accurate and disaggregated data as a basis for evidence-based policies
  2. Minimize the adverse drivers and structural factors that compel people to leave their country of origin
  3. Provide accurate and timely information at all stages of migration
  4. Ensure that all migrants have proof of legal identity and adequate documentation
  5. Enhance availability and flexibility of pathways for regular migration
  6. Facilitate fair and ethical recruitment and safeguard conditions that ensure decent work
  7. Address and reduce vulnerabilities in migration
  8. Save lives and establish coordinated international efforts on missing migrants
  9. Strengthen the transnational response to smuggling of migrants
  10. Prevent, combat and eradicate trafficking in persons in the context of international migration
  11. Manage borders in an integrated, secure and coordinated manner
  12. Strengthen certainty and predictability in migration procedures for appropriate screening, assessment and referral
  13. Use migration detention only as a measure of last resort and work towards alternatives
  14. Enhance consular protection, assistance and cooperation throughout the migration cycle
  15. Provide access to basic services for migrants
  16. Empower migrants and societies to realize full inclusion and social cohesion
  17. Eliminate all forms of discrimination and promote evidence-based public discourse to shape perceptions of migration
  18. Invest in skills development and facilitate mutual recognition of skills, qualifications and competences
  19. Create conditions for migrants and diasporas to fully contribute to sustainable development in all countries
  20. Promote faster, safer and cheaper transfer of remittances and foster financial inclusion of migrants
  21. Cooperate in facilitating safe and dignified return and readmission, as well as sustainable reintegration
  22. Establish mechanisms for the portability of social security entitlements and earned benefits
  23. Strengthen international cooperation and global partnerships for safe, orderly and regular migration

The following represents the Violence and Vulnerabilities theme area from the Gender + Migration Hub project.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

The Government of Bangladesh, through its Expatriates’ Welfare and Overseas Employment Policy, is addressing the need of gender-responsive data and research since 2016. It provides two programs for gender-responsive data collection and use. The first is a Labour Migration Information System to collect and produce dedicated labour migration data, including gender-disaggregated information. The second is a Labour Market Research Centre for investigating labour markets and home and abroad to give appropriate information on changing supplies and demands for labour.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

The Government of Bangladesh undertook a gender equality analysis of its temporary labour agreements with several countries in the Middle East. The analysis provided evidence for negotiations to better protect the right of women migrant workers. Results included new training for over 40 recruitment agencies and the use of a new toolkit on gender-responsive employment and recruitment, which gives practical steps for governments, businesses and civil society in upholding international standards and best practises.

Theme: Development and International Cooperation

GCM Objective: 1, 2, 7, 14

UN Women helped the Government of Bangladesh in 2010 to establish its first resource center for women who wished to migrate so they could easily obtain accurate, up-to-date information. The resource center used workshops and radio broadcasts to make women more aware of their rights, including developing and broadcasting a 26-episode program on national radio.

Theme: Integration and Participation

GCM Objective: 3

The Government of Bangladesh has implemented its Expatriates' Welfare and Overseas Employment Policy in 2016 to identify the need for financial and human resources in addressing gender-related issues. This includes establishing a special, permanent wing in the Ministry of Expatriates' Welfare and Overseas Employment to devise approaches to coordinate implementation of programs supporting women migrant workers. It also enhances gender-responsive budgetary allocations, seeks cooperation from civil society groups and increases the presence of women in labour welfare agencies.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

The Government of Bangladesh, in conjunction with UN Women, has created a gender analytical framework for assessment of its data policies. The framework dissects the gendered impact of data by examining each policy's environment, data production, data dissemination, access and use, including on the statuses and conditions of migrant women.

Theme: Migration Data and Registration

GCM Objective: 1, 7, 14

Belgium

Belgium

The Government of Belgium implemented protections of migrant women through its Alien Law of 1980. The act defines vulnerable groups needing access to social services, including unaccompanied minors, pregnant women, elderly persons and victims of psychological, physical or sexual abuse.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14, 15, 16

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Canada

The Government of Canada, through Statistics Canada, is implementing gender-responsive data into its gender equality and foreign policies in response to a 2018 report. This includes the development of new standards of sex- and gender-related variables and classifications in data collection. The policy aims to provide a two-step process for planning and collecting data on women and gender-diverse people, including migrants.

Theme: Migration Data and Registration

GCM Objective: 1

The Government of Canada is engaging new partners on projects that specifically address the multiple barriers to labour market entry and career advancement faced by visible minority newcomer women in Canada.

Theme: Pathways and Employment

GCM Objective: 6, 16, 18

The Government of Canada introduced its Gender Results Framework (GRF) in 2018 to pursue and enhance gender equality, including on migration-related policies. GRF is a whole-of-government tool designed to track how Canada is doing on gender-responsive policymaking and measure its progress going forward. Through Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, GRF promotes better collection and use of gender-responsive data.

Theme: Migration Data and Registration

GCM Objectives: 1

The Government of Canada is using a gender-based analysis (GBA+) tool to provide capacity building and policy evaluation tools. GBA+ trains policymakers, including in immigration agencies, on how various intersections of identity, such as gender, affect implementation of its policies. Through GBA+, agencies such as Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada are developing, collecting and making better use of gender-responsive data.

Theme: Migration Data and Registration

GCM Objectives: 1

The Government of Canada provides protection and assistance to refugee women through its Women at Risk program. The program provides such assistance to migrant women who are at heightened risk for fear of their safety and security through resettlement in Canada. This applies to women without the normal protection of a family who find themselves in precarious situations.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14, 16

The Canadian Council for Refugees launched a project called "Gender-Based Approach to Settlement". The goal of the project is to build the capacity of the settlement sector to apply a gender-based analysis in the advocacy for and the development, implementation and evaluation of settlement programs and services for migrants.

Theme: Integration and Participation

GCM Objective: 3, 7, 14

Cyprus

Cyprus

The Government of Cyprus established a Multidisciplinary Coordinating Group to monitor migrant rights in trafficking. It provides early identification, protection and support to victims of trafficking. It also promotes international cooperation, monitoring and collection of data.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 1, 9, 10

Ecuador

Ecuador

The Government of Ecuador, with assistance from IOM, launched a comprehensive sensitisation campaign against gender-based violence including discussions, radio broadcasts, film screenings and workshops. The campaign took place in a region of the country hosting displaced populations from Colombia and reached over 3,000 people. In addition, workshops and training on gender-based violence prevention were organised for government officials, and psychosocial support and family therapy sessions were provided to over 1,500 migrant women and their families.

Theme: Integration and Participation

GCM Objective: 3, 7, 14

The Government of Ecuador adopted its National Plan on Human Mobility in 2018. The plan's objective is to enshrine constitutional principles of human mobility into its inter-sectoral public policies. It also emphasises migrant rights through a gender perspective, with an emphasis on priority groups, like migrant women.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

El Salvador

El Salvador

The Government of El Salvador established protection of migrant women in its Plan of Action: Women, Peace and Security 2017-2022. The plan gives special attention to migrant women who are victims of trafficking. In addition, the strategic plan of the Salvadorian Institute for the Rights of Women of 2015-2019 commits the Institute to providing attention to displaced and migrant women.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 9, 10

Georgia

Georgia

The Government of Georgia has established protection for migrant women through Article 19 of the Law on Combating Trafficking. As part of the law's implementation, Georgia gives assistance and protection to victims of human trafficking and entitles any person or legal entity to establish a private, non-for-profit shelther to ensure security for migrant women. Part 2 of the law sets out key standards for shelter services. As a result of the law, multiple shelters were opened in major cities in Georgia.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 9, 10, 15

Greece

Greece

The General Secretariat for Gender Equality issued a guide for migrant women concerning their rights in the areas of work, health and social security. This also helps to sensitize officials and others to the need for equal treatment.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 3, 7

India

India

The Government of India has established a gender budget cell to create schemes benefitting women migrants. It further aims to assess benefits to reaching women through existing social services and develop provisions and targets for make gender-responsive policy planning benefitting women.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

The Government of India has created shelters for distressed women migrant workers in its embassies abroad. These provide safe-haven for women who may have been trafficked or escaped employers due to exploitation or abuse. Embassies work closely with community-based organisations in assisting domestic workers in communicating with employers, recruitment agencies and issues surrounding lack of pay and compensation. They also give labour helplines and helpdesks run by labour attaches to provide legal assistance to migrant workers.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

Indonesia

Indonesia

The Government of Indonesia, with support from UN Women, is working through its judicial institutions to provide training modules to judges. These modules train judges in avoiding discriminatory attitudes towards women, including migrants, who are in conflict with the law. After a pilot program, Indonesia's Supreme Court committed to the program's institutionalisation for training of all in-service judges.

Theme: Integration and Participation

GCM Objective: 3

Indonesia enacted a new Law on the protection of Indonesian migrant workers (Law No 18/2017). The new law reinforces policies to provide end-to-end protection to overseas workers via socio-economic and legal protection before, during, and after recruitment, provision of social security, skills improvement and strengthening of public recruitment agencies.

Theme: Social Protection, Rights and Services

GCM Objective: 6, 22

The Government of Indonesia began a program called "Protecting and Empower Victims of Trafficking", or EMPOWER, to support its efforts in fight trafficking of persons by strengthening the capacity of government and civil society to protect and empower victims of human trafficking. It also seeks to address the root causes of trafficking.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 10

Ireland

Ireland

The Government of Ireland has worked from legislation to cover gender equality, including the Employment Equality Act of 1998. Its National Strategy for Women and Girls, 2017-2020, acknowledges and implements strategies to address the protection of disadvantaged women, including migrants. It aims to enable migrant women to participate in key decisions concerning their lives.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 3, 7, 14, 16

Italy

Italy

The Government of Italy, through the Ministry of Interior and funded by the European Commission, launched a three-year project to protect migrant women who were victims of human trafficking at regional and national levels. The project resulted in the implementation of training courses based on two developed manuals, in consultation with key stakeholders, including migrant women. Once developed, Italy presented its new training courses for focal points in several enforcement bodies.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 9, 10

Madagascar

Madagascar

The Government of Madagascar completed a gender-based analysis in 2019 to inform its responses to gender equality and climate change, including women migrants. Its report involved analysing the ways in which climate change differentially affects vulnerable groups, such as women and migrants. To address these inequities, the report recommend establishment of new and extension of previous services for women.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14, 15

Malaysia

Malaysia

The Ministry of Human Resources (MOHR) of Malaysia published a "Guideline and Tips for Employers of Foreign Domestic Helpers" to create awareness for employers and ensure adequate protection of foreign domestic helpers, and, through the bilateral agreements with sending countries for domestic workers, has agreed for the inclusion of pre-departure training to be held at the country of origin.

Theme: Pathways and Employment

GCM Objective: 3, 6, 16, 18

The Government of Malaysia has organised training programs for domestic migrant workers coming to work in the country. The training programs aim to raise awareness of domestic workers and their rights under Malaysian labour law, introduce the basics of the Malay language and highlight cultural differences. In 2016, Malaysia published guidelines to raise further awareness among employer about laws and modalities for recruitment and employment of domestic workers.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

The Government of Malaysia has adopted legislation focused on combatting exploitation and abuse in its labour markets. Based on the Private Employment Agencies Act of 1981, private employment agencies are required to provide financial guarantees for support of migrant workers, especially women working in the domestic sector. The government aims to filter out careless employers and protect the rights of domestic workers through this policy.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

Morocco

Morocco

The Government of Morocco is providing social assistance services to its entire population, regardless of migration status. This includes provision of services in the National Mutual Aid program for disadvantaged women and victims of violence, as well as protection to migrant children and the disabled through the Solidarity, Family and Social Development Ministry.

Theme: Social Protection, Rights and Services

GCM Objective: 12, 15, 22

The Government of Morocco is enacting a policy to allow irregular migrants to become reuglarized and integrate them into Moroccan society. This allows them access to basic social services and formal employment. The aim of the policy is to address the vulnerability and often dire living conditions of irregular migrants, especially women.

Theme: Integration and Participation

GCM Objective: 12, 16

Financed by the EU and Terre des Hommes, the Government of Morocco implemented its Takine-Migrants project to improve access to health care and educational services for migrant women and children from Sub-Saharan Africa. The project aims to improve medical, social and psychological care of migrant women.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 15

Myanmar

Myanmar

Htoi provides rescued women and girls with legal aid, psychosocial counselling, referrals to services, skills training for their economic recovery and human trafficking awareness training.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 9, 10, 15, 22

The Government of Myanmar is providing long-term, targeted livelihood programs for women, including migrants, to strength their labour skills and opportunities. With support from UN Women, Myanmar gives training on entrepreneurship and development. Benefits to women include training, livelihood opportunities, cash and in-kind support to establish businesses. It also provides awareness-raising sessions on safe migration to women participating in these activities and women's support groups for peer-to-peer support.

Theme: Pathways and Employment

GCM Objective: 6, 16, 18

The Poverty Reduction through Safe Migration, Skills Development and Enhanced Job Placement (PROMISE) programme establishes partnerships with employers in Thailand and skill development partners in the countries of origin to develop new cross-border models of market-driven migrant skills training. It will also improve access to skills training for migrants already working in Thailand in construction, manufacturing and hospitality.

Theme: Pathways and Employment

GCM Objective: 6, 18

Nepal

Nepal

The Government of Nepal, working with civil society groups, implemented the CEDAW shadow reporting processes to advocate for ratification of international conventions on migrant rights, especially for women. Adopted conventions include ILO Domestic Workers Convention (2011) and the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

The Government of Nepal implemented gender-responsive data collection and use in its national census in 2001 to address gaps in women's access to land and social services. Results related to this policy led to two two constitutional amendments which significantly improved land ownership right for women in the country. As a consequence, women's land ownership in Nepal, including for migrants, trebled between 2001 and 2009.

Theme: Migration Data and Registration

GCM Objective: 1, 7, 14

The Government of Nepal, through its constitution as part of Article 29, is ensuring equal and fair treatment of migrants, especially women. Through its Foreign Employment Policy (2012), the government provides information to women migrants in the challenges they may face in migration, particularly for domestic workers. Nepal has also endorsed the Women Domestic Workers Guideline (2015) on domestic workers overseas. The guideline will address problems facing women migrant workers by holding employers and local recruitment agencies in destination countries responsible for migrant welfare.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

Netherlands

Netherlands

The Government of the Netherlands established The National Rapporteur on Trafficking, which reports on the extent of human trafficking and sexual violence against children, as well as the effects of related government policies.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 10

New Zealand

New Zealand

From 2002 to 2008, the Government of New Zealand required a Gender Implications Statement to accompany all cabinet papers, including on migration policies. This action required analysis of all policy proposal's gendered impacts, with requirements to address issues, identify unique needs to vulnerable groups and ensure appropriate instruments were in place to provide services to women, including migrants.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 1, 7, 14

Philippines

Philippines

The Government of the Philippines established Republic Act 8042 to affirm the fundamental equality of women in building the country. Through this act, the government is implementing a policy to recognise the contributions of women migrant workers overseas and their particular vulnerabilities. This includes the use of gender-reponsive criteria in policy planning related to migrant workers and the composition of political bodies tasked to oversee migrant welfare. It also includes the establishment of a resource centre for migrant workers to give training and services in gender-sensitive programs and activities. These changes will work to assist the special needs of women migrant workers.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

The Government of the Philippines, working with the Trade Union Congress (TUCP) and various NGOs, is providing better protection for migrant workers, especially domestic workers, through gender-responsive data collection. TUCP collects data and addresses issues related to women migrant workers, such as sexual violence and health. These groups have also created a centre for migrant workers returning to and leaving the Philippines, including giving training sessions informing migrants of their rights and giving foreign contacts.

Theme: Migration Data and Registration

GCM Objective: 1, 15

The Government of the Philippines has developed a large network of labour offices in foreign countries to administer and enforce labour migrant protections, especially for women. There are currently 34 offices providing services to labour migrants around the world. These offices develop infrastructure to provide protection for migrant workers abroad.

Theme: Social Protection, Rights and Services

GCM Objective: 7, 14, 15

The Government of the Philippines adopted the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipino Act to guarantee protection of migrant workers, especially women, through certification, penalising illegal recruitment and providing free access to skill-building and livelihood programs. The Philippines is working on various fronts for the protection of migrant workers, especially domestic workers, including through deploying female personnel to overseas labour offices and installing gender focal point officers at its consulates and embassies.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

Serbia

Serbia

The Government of Serbia implemented a project using cultural mediators to support vulnerable migrants. Support includes specialized case management, safety planning, referral, psychosocial support and support of best interests of migrants. It features a thematic focus on gender-based violence.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 10, 12

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone

The Government of Sierra Leone has incorporated gender-based analysis for the protection of migrant women in its National Migration Strategy (2017). In the strategy, gender is considered a key, cross-cutting issue that needs to be mainstreamed into migration management and development planning. The strategy encompasses gender-sensitive policy objectives, which aims to both mainstream gender into migration policy and ensure that such policy benefits both men and women.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

Singapore

Singapore

The Government of Singapore amended the Women's Charter to enhance protection for victims of trafficking and prostitution through enhancing criminal penalties.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 9, 10

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

The Government of Sri Lanka, with support from UN Women, developed a training manual to help labour attaches to better respond to sexual- and gender-based violence among women migrant workers. A second manual, which is now integrated in regular training sessions by the Bureau of Foreign Employment, explains basic rights and entitlements for women migrants.

Theme: Integration and Participation

GCM Objective: 3

The Government of Sri Lanka has provided pre-departure training for migrant workers since 1996. Training includes migrant worker registration and welfare benefits. Benefits incorporate pre-departure loans, scholarships for children and insurance coverage. All women domestic migrant workers going to Gulf Cooperation Council countries must obtain this pre-departure training.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

The Government of Sri Lanka has entered into MoUs and bilateral agreements on labour migration to include measures on protection of the rights of women migrants. Through the Ministries of Foreign Employment and Foreign Affairs, migrants may file complaints with labour attaches in destination countries, such as Thailand and South Korea.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14, 15

The Government of Sri Lanka approved a national framework on prevention of sexual and gender-based violence in 2016. It developed this framework through the Ministry of Women and Child Affairs with support from UNDP. It includes provisions on child affairs, foreign employment, disaster management, economic development, employment, education, empowerment and prevention of violence.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

Taiwan

Taiwan

The Government of Taiwan, through the Department of Labour in Taoyuan City, is implementing participatory budgeting for migrants workers. The project provides on- and off-line channels for foreign residents, especially women, to express their issues, needs and policy ideas. The project aims to help migrant workers feel like equal members of society and include them in budgetary and policymaking processes.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14

Turkey

Turkey

The Government of Turkey has implemented Law No. 6284, which focuses on the protection of family and prevention of violence against women, especially migrants. The law regulates procedures and principles with regard to measures for the prevention of violence against women more broadly. Anyone, including migrant women, may benefit from services provided by the Violence Prevention and Protection Centres, Women's Shelters and Provincial Directorates of Family, Labour and Social Services without discrimination.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 7, 14, 15, 22

United States of America

United States of America

The Government of the United States of America, with help from IOM, worked through the Refugee Admissions Program and IOM Resettlement Support Centers to create safe spaces for welcoming and confidential spaces to protect LGBTQIA+ refugees. The initiative assists LGBTQIA+ migrants in their settlement and maintains strict confidentiality of sensitive information. It also distributes handouts to ensure vulnerable migrants receive critical information needed to make informed decisions about their resettlement cases.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 3, 7, 14

The Government of the United States, through The Violence Against Women Act (2000), has enabled tools for migrant women suffering from domestic violence to improve their health and legal situations. The act improves access to cancellation of removal and funding schemes for migrant women. It also allows them to obtain Lawful Permanent Resident status without leaving the country and created a new type of visa for victims of serious crimes, including gender-based violence.

Theme: Violence and Vulnerabilities

GCM Objective: 5, 7, 14